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port'n Dogs • A Conservation Milestone • Short Hills WMA 



'£K 2011 



I li(^ Miiiratorx IJiiMriiH^alx Act: 
Its Orii^ins and Impacts 

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22 I ^iNing With Wildlife 

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32 Orillie L(>asli • 33 Pholo li|)s • 34 Dining 111 

ABULl r I Ht COVLR: W hiictail buck. SIoia oh pa^c 10. '. .lohii U. K.,nl 

Executive Director 

Birds, and their remarkable ability to fly, have inspired mankind from 
time immemorial. Itwasaconcern for the future of these wonderfully 
adapted creatures that resulted in one of this coimtry's greatest milestones 
in conservation history: passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918. 
This act recognized the critical need to halt the indiscriminate market 
hunting of migratory birds and, at the same time, reinforced the Public 
Trust Doctrine of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation. 
This one act recognized that migratory wild fowl are indeed an internation- 
al resource and must be managed accordingly. I think you will enjoy the ar- 
ticle on page 5 about this historic legislation. 

We all have our own, unique connections to wildlife. I recall as a 
young bowhunter afield in Southwest Virginia I was curious about how 
loggerhead strikes would impale their prey on the thorns of Hawthorne 
bushes. I marveled at a migration wave of buUbats (nighthawks) in the 
New River Valley extending for several miles, and the recollection fills me 
with the same sense of wonder as the large number of purple martins that 
stage annually at the Farmers Market in Richmond. Similarly, I remember 
working in the mid-grass prairies in Kansas in the mid-1970s and first 
hearing, and then seeing, thousands of sandhill cranes bugling and migrat- 
ing from their staging area on the Platte River. I recall seeing my first tun- 
dra swans, then called whisding swans, at Back Bay National Wildlife 
Refuge in the late 1 970s. I also fondly remember in 1 987 taking my eldest 
daughter, just four years old at the time, with me to see the first successful 
brown pelican nests in Virginia of recent history. 

In my professional life I have had the good fortune to capture and 
band wild fowl in three of the four flyways. Of those many wonderful ex- 
periences, my favorite — and one that I continue to enjoy — is using an air- 
boat at night to capture wood ducks during late summer and early fall. For 
the record, I don't drive airboats; more correctly, my very capable staff have 
me down as the designated non-driver. That chore is much too critical to 
our safety and the successful capture of wood ducks to be left with me. The 
object of these night-time capture operations is to allow us to band home- 
grown wood ducks in order to obtain management data on their survival, 
movements, and productivity. Those data in turn play into the discussions 
with flyway biologists on setting season frameworks. 

The actual act of capture can best be described as trying to catch a 
small, elusive duck with a lacrosse stick-sized net while underway in a fast- 
moving airboat on a moonless night and a high tide. Let the games begin! 
In addition to actually catching wood ducks, the most amazing thing 
about these operations is the diversity of wildlife observed — including 
everything from sora rails, egrets, herons, bitterns, beavers, muskrats, snap- 
ping turtles, frogs, and lots of unknown species offish moving too quickly 
through the thick underwater vegetation to be identified. But I digress. 

As this issue reaches you, himting seasons are well underway. Folks 
have already been afield enjoying dove, goose, and teal seasons, along with 
archery season and the special Youth Deer Hunting Day. I love the month 
of November for all of these opportunities and for my favorite holiday, 
"Ilianksgiving. I hope everyone will consider how blessed we are and that 
you will take time with your families and friends to enjoy this special sea- 
.son. I trust you will also enjoy the line-up of stories inside when you are not 
out there, creating your own outdoor connections and wildlife memories! 


To nian.igc Virginia's wildlife .ind inland fish to maintain optimum populations of all species to serve the needs of the C'ommonweaich; To 
provide opportunity for all to enioy wildlife, inland fish, boating .ind related outdoor recreation and to work diligently to safcgu.ird the rights 
of the people to hunt, fish and harvest game as provided for in the Constitution of Virginia; To promote safety for persons and property in 
connection with boating, hunting and fishing; lb provide educational outreach programs and materials that foster an awareness of ajid appre- 
ciation for Virginia's fisli and wiklliie resources, their habitats, and hunting, fishing, and boating opportunities. 

Dedicated to the Conservation of Virginia's Wildlife anci Natural Resources 

VOniMF 72 


Bob McDonnell, Governor 


Subsidized this publication 

Douglas W. Domenech 



Bob Duncan 

Executive Director 


Lisa Caruso, Church Road 
J. Brent Clarke, III, Great Falls 
Curtis D. Colgate, Virginia Beach 
James W. Hazel, Oakton 
Randy j. Kozuch, Alexandria 
Mary Louisa Pollard, Irvington 
F. Scott Reed, Jr., Manakin-Sabot 
Leon O. Turner, Fincastle 
Charles S. Yates, Cleveland 


Sally Mills, Editor 

Lee Walker, Ron Messina, Julia Dixon, 

Contributing Editors 
Emily Pels, Art Director 
Carol Kushlak, Production Manager 

Printing by Progress Printing, Lynchburg, VA. 


Virffiiia Wildlife (ISSN 0042 6792) is published monthly 
by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 
Send all subscription orders and address changes to Virginia 
Wildlife, P. O. Box 830, Boone, Iowa 50036. Address all 
other communications concerning this publication to Vir- 
ginia Wildlife, P. O. Box 1 1 104, 4010 West Street, 
Richmond, Virginia 23230-1104. Subscription rates are 
$12.95 for one year, $23.95 for two years; $4.00 per each 
back issue, subject to availability. Out-of-country rate is 
$24.95 for one year and must be paid in U.S. Rinds. No re- 
funds for amounts less than $5.00. lb subscribe, call toll- 
free (800) 710-9369. POSTMASTER: send all 
address changes to Virginia Wildlife, PO. Box 830, Boone, 
Iowa 50036. Postage forpcriodicils paid at Richmond, Vir- 
ginia and additional entry offices. 

Copyright 201 1 by the Virginia Department of Game and 
Inland Fisheries. All rights reserved. 

[he Department ot Game and Inland Fisheries shall afford 
to all persons an equal access to Department programs and 
facilities without regard to race, color, religion, national ori 
gin, disability, sex, or age. It you believe that you have been 
discriminated .igainst in any program, activit)' or flicility. 
please write to: Virginia Department ol Game and Inland 
Fisheries, ATTN: (:ompli.ince Officer, (4010 West Broad 
Street.) P O. Box 1 1 104, Richmond, Virginia 23230-1104. 

'Ihis publication is intended for general informational pur- 
poses only and every effort has been made to ensure its ac- 
curacy. The information contained herein does not serve a: 
a legal representation ot fish and vs'ildlitc laws or regulations 
Tlic Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries doei 
not assume responsibility for any change in dates, regula- 
tions, or information that may occur alter publication. 



Paper from 

FSC* C005991 


Roseate Tern 

©Spike Knuth 




by Beth Hester 

"Unless and except as permitted by 
regulations made as hereinafter provided 
in this subchapter, it shall be unlawful at 
any time, by any means or in any manner, 
to pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill, attempt 
to take, capture, or kill possess, transport. . . 
any migratory bird, any part, nest, or egg of 
any such bird, or any product, whether or 
not manifactured, which consists, or is 
composed in whole or part, of any such bird 
or any part, nest, or egg thereof. .. " 

-(16U.S.C. 703-712) 

The M5TA: Confusion 
and Good Intentions 

Earlier this year, a good-hearted 1 1 -year-old 
Fredericksburg girl 'rescued' a baby wood- 
pecker from a perceived threat: a cat lurking 
in the backyard. Not wanting to leave the 
bird alone and unwilling to leave the bird in 
a hot vehicle, the girl, with caged bird in tow, 
entered a local hardware outlet where the 
woodpecker was sponed by a U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife (FWS) ofhcer who happened to be 
in the store. As illegal possession of a bird 
may potentially violate the federal Migrato- 
ry Bird Treaty Act, the officer initiated an in- 
quiry. Upon speaking with the family at a 
later date, the officer determined that no fur- 
ther action was needed, because the girl had 
since released the bird back into the wild and 
was operating as a Good Samaritan. Unfor- 
tunately, a glitch in the automated FWS 
computer system tailed to cancel the previ- 
ously issued, pre-investigation citation, and 
the girl's mother received the errant citation 
in the mail along with a fine of 535 dollars. 
The resulting news story went viral. The Vir- 
ginia Department of Game and Inland Fish- 
eries was not a part of this investigation. 

The FWS apologized to the dazed fam- 
ily for the error, acknowledging the girl's 
good intentions. But by this time, the blo- 
gosphere was jumping with posts from anti- 

government conspiracy theorists claiming 
that the MBTA and attendant enforcement 
effijrts constituted an unwarranted 'Big Gov- 
ernment' intrusion into everyday life. 
Though experienced wildlife rehabilitators 
and other skilled outdoor professionals at- 
tempted to modulate the discussions in vari- 
ous media outlets by means of MBTA 
apologetics, it was becoming clear that lack of 
context, and an ignorance of the law and its 
origins, was fomenting a mixture of indigna- 
tion and confiision. Given the breadth of re- 
cent media attention and widespread 
misunderstanding, it is useRil to revisit the 
history of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
(MBTA) and explore its application in 
today's environment. 

The bacLstortj: 

Tasnion Trade, 

Market Hunting, and 

Specimen Collecting 


Bird Populations 

Around the turn of the century, and before 
the MBTA was enacted in 191 8, being 'fash- 
ion-forward' meant wearing hats accented by 
exotic bird feathers. Postcards from the era, 
along with covers of popular magazines like 
the Saturday Evening Post, show women 
sporting ostrich and egret-plumed hats, jaun- 
ty caps trimmed with heron feathers, and 
weird millinery concoctions topped with the 
bodies ot entire birds. According to research 
by ornithologist Frank Chapman, 40 vari- 
eties of native birds or bird parts adorned ap- 
proximately three-quarters of the 700 
women's hats he'd observed in New York City 
alone. Millinery houses in Europe and Amer- 
ica participated in an international bird and 
bird feather trade to meet the demand. Popu- 
lations of white egret, heron, trumpeter swan 
and roseate tern were being devastated. 
Hunters would actively seek out remote, large 
rookeries where the take would be the great- 
est, cruelly removing the bird's breeding 
plumes. The indiscriminant slaughter of 
these birds often left considerable numbers of 
young offspring to starve, causing popula- 
tions to further deteriorate. According to the 
Audubon Society, the feather trade killed 
some 200 million wild birds per year. 


Another cause of avian decline was the 
practice of market gunning, widespread in wa- 
terfowl-rich regions across the Atlantic Flyway, 
including the Chesapeake Bay and Currituck 
Sound. At the turn of the century, wild game 
was becoming a popular item on the menus of 
upscale restaurants and resort hotels, and mar- 
ket gimners and their middlemen worked effi- 
ciently to satisfy the new tastes of 
emerging markets. So efficiently, it 
turns out, that market gunners using 
sink boxes, huge deck-mounted punt 
guns, live decoys, sneak boats, and 
baits could kill massive amounts of 
waterfowl in a very short period of 
time. Many conscientious sportsmen 
and guides whose livelihoods de- 
pended upon providing good 
hunts for their paying clients con- 
demned the practices. 

Interestingly, during the 
same period that ffie hunting of 
game birds was largely unregu- 
lated and bobolinks were being 
served in restaurants, there was a 
corresponding up-tick of interest in 
natural history and bird watching. Eager na- 
ture hobbyists collected specimens for study 
and, peripherally, for home decor. For many 
fashionable late- Victorians, Edwardians, and 
Gilded Agers, this literally meant bringing the 
outdoors inside. Literature of the period fre- 
quendy describes interiors where varieties of 
stuffed birds and collections of nests, feathers, 
and eggs are exhibited in bell jars or in diora- 
ma-like display cases right alongside the poned 
plants. This widespread collecting added to the 

bird body count, but the growing interest in 
new scientific discoveries and natural history 
had the collateral effect of encouraging 
emerging pockets of concerned bird watchers 
and ornithologists to begin to form the basis 
for what would become a modern, fully- 
fledged conservation movement. 

Cooperative Efforts 

and Concerned Citizens 


Early efforts at bird conservation were truly 
grassroots. For example, in 1 896, years after 
George Grinnell's unsuccessful attempt at or- 
ganizing the first Audubon Society chapter, a 
determined Harriet Hemenway persuaded 
her influential, high-society friends to, well, 
stop wearing birds on their heads. Eventually, 
Harriet and her cadre of Boston bird advo- 
cates founded the Massachitsetts Audubon 

Society. As other chapters organized, they 
banded together, pushing states to regulate 
market hunting and to stop practices that were 
pushing more and more birds to the edge of ex- 
tinction. Society women held fundraising, 
bird-consciousness-raising informational teas 
and they tirelessly circulated petitions. These 
tea parties were early conservationist versions 
of social media, and with the aid of auxiliary 
publications, word about bird conservation 
began to spread. Eventually, editorial content 
in fashion magazines like Harper's Bazaar, 
Vogue, and Ladies Home Journal rejected this 
new discussion. 

New Laws Help 

Bird Populations 

One of the earliest pieces of legislation result- 
ing from the coalescing interests of educated 
ladies-who-lunch, amateur naturalists, birders. 

Blue Heron 

©Spike Knuth 

Nd^EMBER 201 1 ♦ 


scientists, and ethical sportsmen was The 
Lacey Act of 1900. The act helped to protect 
game and wild birds by making it a federal 
crime to poach game in one state with the in- 
tent to sell it in another. The law also was con- 
cerned with the potential for exotic and 
non-native species of animals to be intro- 
duced into native populations, overtake 
them, and introduce disease. 

Following on the heels of The Lacey Act 
was the Weeks-McLean Law, which in 1913 
placed migratory birds under federal jurisdic- 
tion, prohibiting their killing without federal 
authorization. There followed various state 
and federal court rulings to strike down 

Weeks-McLean, but in 1916 the Wilson Ad- 
ministration negotiated a treaty on behalf of 
Canada via Great Britain — an agreement 
which would lay the groundwork for what 
would, in 1918, become The Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act. 

The Migratory 
bird Treaty Act 
Gains Traction 

The MBTA implemented the 1916 agree- 
ment between the United States and Great 
Britain to protect birds migrating between 

the U.S. and Canada. Migratory birds don't 
observe border crossings or turn back at 
checkpoints, so as conservation efforts 
evolved and political climates became 
amenable to discussion, other conventions 
between the U.S. and Mexico (1936), Japan 
(1972), and the U.S.S.R. (Russia, 1976) were 
incorporated. Currendy, the MBTA estab- 
lishes federal protection over approximately 
836 bird species, some 58 of which are legally 
hunted as game birds during designated sea- 
sons, with bag limits regulating harvest. 

Some species not covered by the MBTA 
are covered by The Endangered Species Act, 
or other federal and state laws which are at 
least as restrictive. While broader aspects of 
the MBTA are easily understood, such as not 
killing songbirds, disturbing eggs, or relocat- 
ing or removing osprey nests without a spe- 
cial purpose permit, other facets of the act are 
surprising, and harder to interpret, such as 
whether or not it's legal to remove a baby bird 
to save it from a marauding cat in your back- 
yard. While researching this piece, I came 
across coundess examples of people seeking 
clarity on a variety of murky, bird-related 
moral dilemmas. Here is a sampling of ques- 
tions, and the correct answers: 

♦ "My mom's afraid her new chihuahua will 
be snatched from our yard by circling 
hawks. What do we do?"¥£c^ the dog in 
the house, or get a bigger dog. 

♦ "Can I pick up found game bird feathers to 
use in my fly tying/ dream catcher crafting/ 
quill pen making?" Yon can, but you 
probably shouldn't. If the authorities 
find the feathers in your possession out 
of season, how would they know how 
you obtained them? Of course, using 
feathers from legally hunted and thus 
legally possessed game birds is fine. 

♦ Is it illegal for me to bring in bluejay feath- 
ers for show-arui-tell?" Yts. Although it 
seems unreasonable to some, unless 
specifically allowed imder the terms of a 
salvage or other permit, it is illegal to col- 
lect bird feathers or nests. 

♦ "A woodpecker is punching holes in my sid- 
ing. Can 1 get rid of itV"Vn&x& are harm- 
less, simple ways to discourage this 
unwanted activity. Check with your 
local Cooperative Extension Service 


©Spike Knuth 

♦ "Canada geese are harming my crops!" 
Check with the Department of Game 
and Inland Fisheries or the U.S. Dept. of 
Agricultures wildlife program for infor- 
mation on current laws and available 
'coping' mechanisms. 

♦ "I found a baby bird hopping on the 
^ound. I think it's abandoned or injured. 
Can I bring it in the house to keep it safe 
and nurture it back to health?" It is best to 
curb the impulse to 'rescue' birds. 
Though well intended, you may end up 
doing more harm than good. In most 
cases the baby birds are finding their way 
in their new surroundings and are being 
watched by a parent. If a bird is actually 
crippled or needs assistance, contact or your vet- 
erinarian for guidance on what to do 
until a legally certified wildlife rehabili- 
tator can take possession of the bird. 

Evolving Laws 
and Regulations 

Changing circumstances can create the need 
to re-evaluate our conservation laws. For ex- 
ample. The Lacey Act of 1900 has been 
amended many times, and now it includes 
provisions for plants and mammals and is 
concerned with the effects of commercial log- 
ging on wildlife. Limited flexibility has been 
created to handle osprey nests and Canada 
geese in certain narrow circumstances, and in 
August of this year the Audubon Society met 
to re-examine the MBTA's effectiveness, as 
migratory birds face increasing environmen- 
tal stress. 

The provisions of MBTA impact indi- 
viduals, corporations, and industry. Enforce- 
ment is strict, and penalties for violating the 
law can be severe. It may seem petty or intru- 
sive to make it illegal to gather bird feathers 
during an autumn hike in the woods; it may 
seem heardess to restria well-meaning, but 





Great Egret 

.,4a. :§l. 


©Spike Knuth 

un-trained citizens from 'rescuing' baby 
birds; it may be a temporary pain in the 
keester to have to consult with wildlife offi- 
cials or biologists about the mourning dove 
that is nesting in your construction equip- 
ment; and. . . it may seem like 'Big Brother' is 
restricting your right to do whatever you 
want to any animal that comes onto your 
property. But the fact is, strict enforcement of 
the MBTA and other bird conservation laws 
protecting both game and non-game species 
has substantially curbed declining popula- 
tion numbers and many birds, such as the 
great blue heron, have rebounded since the 
early 20th century. 

The MBTA hasn't prevented women 
from wearing ugly hats; children will always 
want to pick up pretty feathers; and some 
people will simply do whatever they want 
when they think no one is looking. But these 
persnickety laws, as some have called them, 
serve a greater purpose. The smaller details of 
the MBTA help to support its overall mis- 
sion, to further a diverse, healthy ecosystem. 

So as they say: When in doubt, observe 
but don't touch. . . look, but don't coUect. ?f 

Beth Hester is a writer and freelance photographer from 
Portsmouth. Her passions include reading, shooting 
kayaking, fishing, tying saltwater flies, and tending her 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 

Left, James Jackson Sr., (L) with hunting 
buddies in 1951. Below, members of 
the Longhorn Hunting Club of James 
City County gather in 1952. Included 
here are James Jackson Sr. and Bub's 
uncle, George Jackson, both still living. 
Right, Bub Jackson with one of his ful 


James "Bub'' Jackson 
entertains thousands 

with his 

Virginia Whitetail 


an extension of 

family heritage and 

an inclusion call 
to future generations. 

Huxiting ll 



^ l^k M^k y mom would drop me 
I ^^^ ^1 oft at dawn by the edge 
Jk V bI^h of the woods and give 
me 20 cents because I never kjiew where I'd 
end up," recalls Williamsburg resident "Bub" 
Jackson, reflecting back to his vouth. "At the 
end of the day, I'd scout out a pay phone and 
then mom would come get me. " 

The Williamsburg area draws millions of 
visitors annually seeking its historic treasures 
and abundant entertainment venues; yet the 

Jackson fiimily has enjoyed excellent hundng 
on the outskirts of the historic city, a tradition 
that Bub extends to his children and grand- 
children today. 

"I used to have 3,600 acres to roam as a 
yoiuig man, but it's only ten percent of what it 
once was, " he laments. "Still, I have great suc- 
cess, sometimes in unlikely places. ' 

One of the most recent additions to his 
Virginia Wliitetail Collection stemmed from a 
chance encounter while driving through the 
outskirts of Williamsburg. 

"I was driving slowly, looking for a friend, 
when a ladv called to me from the curb. " 


hrough History 

"Hey!" she said loudly. "Are you a 

"Why, yes I am," Jackson replied, re- 
membering that he was wearing a camou- 
flage shirt. 

"Come here for a moment," continued 
the lady, a hint of desperation in her voice. 
"There's a big buck coming through my 
backyard and I'm afraid it will attack my 

"I'll have to use a crossbow in the city 
limits," explained Jackson. 

"I don't care what you use," she contin- 
ued. "It looks like it's going to charge. " 

the Family Tradition 

Bub Jackson was born in New Kent County 
and became enthralled with hunting at the 
knee oi his father and other lamily members. 
"My dad and uncle talked about hunting all 
the time and I was fascinated with the stories 
they told," he remembers. "Everyone had 
hunting and fishing stories, and the one that 
got away was always the biggest." 

Bub and his brothers each received BB 
guns at an early age and learned to shoot and 

hunt by chasing sparrows and starlings. That 
progressed to a .22 rifle and food species like 
squirrels and rabbits. "If dad had to keep the 
boys, he'd take us hunting so that he could 
enjoy himself too. He also taught us hunting 
and general gun safety." 

Bub often hunted before and after high 
school, to the point that he got burned out as 
the outdoors had to compete with sports and 
girls. "You didn't have the gear and clothing 
you have today, " he explains. "No camou- 
flage, just brown or green colors, and you 
wore five pairs of socks and three pairs of jeans 
to keep warm. I was cold all the time." 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 11 

After high school, Jackson entered the 
Army where he became proficient with a rifle 
and began developing his independent style. 
Returning home, he put his newly learned 
shooting skills to work and quickly became an 
effective hunter. "My dad, uncle, and their 
friends hunted deer with hounds, carrying on 
the traditional British traditions," says Jack- 
son. "I quickly learned that the old-timers 
kept the best deer stands a secret and used us 
younger guys to move deer and harvest does. 
Using dad's 30-06, I began perfecting the 
skills of still hunting, read every book and 
magazine I could find on the subject, and 
soon took much bigger bucks than the dog 

The Virginia Whitetail Collection 

In the next few years, Jackson's hunting suc- 
cess mushroomed, such that he attended large 
hunting shows where the big names in hunt- 
ing were selling products and promoting their 
video tapes. He took deer in Williamsburg as 
big as or bigger than any of the game they 
were displaying and dreamed of a way to earn 
a living from his hunting prowess. 

In the early 1990s, video tapes about 
hunting became a profitable business and 
Jackson believed his experiences would be of 
interest to the hunting public. However, most 
professional hunters had film crews to capture 

Bub Jackson's video has been a big hit at 
trade shows and will soon be available on DVD. 
Contact Bub at (757) 869-0228 for Information. 

their exploits — an expense well beyond the 
means of an Anheuser-Busch employee. Up 
to the challenge, Jackson experimented by 
filming himself. It is a practice he continues to 
this day. By using a very sturdy swing arm in a 
tree stand, he captured a number of authentic 
hunting harvests. 

"A lot of times the deer got away, but I 
had to be patient and get the whole process on 
tape," Jackson says. "Each time you go, you 
try to do it better, and after years of experi- 
mentation I perfected the practice." 

Long before websites and electronic 
media, Jackson realized that he needed to step 
apart from the rest of the hunting world and 
had an idea. ^X'Tlat if he made full mounts of 
the many game animals that he and his family 
harvested in the Williamsburg area? Al- 
though shoulder mounts were common 
among hunters, few captured realistic presen- 
tations ol game animals. 

Jackson began exhibiting his collection 
and soon had a lengthy list of paid invitations 
to regional sporting shows to display his 
many mounts and talk with patrons about his 
techniques and tactics. Although the quality 
of the game animals was impressive, few 
could imagine they came Irom Williamsburg, 
Virginia. As Jackson's skills developed, the 
collection grew impressively. 

Change for Better or Worse? 

Jackson has seen hunting change in some as- 
pects, yet not in others. "Nature-wise, I think 
global warming has changed hunting a lot," 
he says, basing that assertion on his observa- 
tions. "I've not seen a rut in traditional style, 
such as big bucks chasing does, in the last five 
years. Normally I took my best deer during 
the first week of November when the muzzle- 
loading season opens. Now, I'm seeing the 
biggest deer move during the first two weeks 
of October in the archery season. It seems like 
the rut is three weeks sooner. " 

Advances in gear and clothing have 
made a huge diflPerence as well. "I now plant 
food plots and use motion-sensor, trail cam- 
eras to identify and scout for deer," says Jack- 
son, attributing one of his recent big deer to 
the imaging trend. "I had photos ol three 
bucks that passed through a fence opening 
regularly in September. A week before the 
archery season opened, I deployed a blind 
near that crossing and expected to score the 
first morning. The bucks didn't show until 
evening, and I passed two easy shots at nice 

Bub Jackson with his extensive 

Big Game Collection at a trade show. 

bucks because I knew that a third and largest 
buck stayed with the group. Several minutes 
after the first two animals passed, the real tro- 
phy came along. " 

Jackson believes the multi-billion-dollar 
hunting industry has embraced new technol- 
ogy in clothing and hunting gear, yet has not 
opened its arms to diversity among its partici- 
pants. "As an African American, I don't be- 
lieve the hunting industry has done anything 
to broaden itself to minority markets, " he 
says. "Deer are color blind, why isn't the 
hunting industry? " 

A decade ago, as hunting shows became 
more popular on television, industry leaders 
took steps to see that those productions de- 
picted ethnically appropriate themes. "Shows 
progressed far beyond the single male hunter, 
embracing women, kids, the handicapped, 
and veterans," Jackson says. "I don't want to 
sound bitter, but I hope to send a message to 
the industry. I see a lot of hunters with dis- 
abled veterans; yet, they are primarily white. 
And I know fi-om being in the military, we've 
always been on the front lines. " 

Play it Forward 

Jackson worries about future minority gener- 
ations and their involvement in the outdoors. 
"No one is a more ardent proponent of hunt- 
ing than I am; yet I have a hard time getting 
my kids and grandkids fired up about hunt- 
ing. They don't have the drive because they 

don't see kids of color on TV. A huge segment 
of the next generation is being overlooked. 
Hunting shows are all white, with few if any 
Blacks, Asians, or Hispanics. It's not about 
me, but the industry needs to attempt to 
make the outdoors bigger and better for 

"I have a brother, a cousin, and several 
friends who are ardent golfers and play regu- 
larly, even though they weren't raised on the 
sport. That's not the influence of Jack 
Nicholas, but Tiger Woods," Jackson says. "In 
this way, I hope that the Virginia Whitetail 
Collection is an inspiration to all hunters, but 
minorities in particular. The emphasis needs 
to be on getting all children into the out- 

"Right now, I have four generations ol 
hunters: my dad, son, daughter, and grand- 
children. My dad is 84 and still drives to 
Kansas and Alabama to bow hunt. He in- 
spired me and introduced me to a world of 
natural recreation, and I hope to pass that ex- 
citement and dedication on to ftiture genera- 
tions ol young people, regardless of color. My 
goal is to keep growing and exhibiting the col- 
lection in the hopes that the Internet and TV 
industry will soon get the message. " ?f 

Awiird-u 'i fining author and photographer Joe Byers 
ofHagerstoivn, Md. has more than 1000 articles in 
print, derivedfrom a passion for the outdoors. Check 
If WW. huntingwithjoebyers. com . 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 13 

Courtesy of Taylor Cole 


rhe natural and rural landscapes 
of Virginia have been celebrat- 
ed in painting, poetry, and 
song for over four hundred years. Over the 
long millennia prior to English settlement the 
land had abundantly provided its inhabitants 
with the resources necessary for life, from a 
Chesapeake Bay once so full offish it was dif- 
ficult to navigate, to the western mountains 
teeming with deer, bear, and wild turkey. The 
ritualized hunting practiced by the natives 
was replaced by the wholesale conversion of 
forested habitat into farmland as Europeans 
moved farther inland. Native species such as 
elk, woodland bison, and mountain lion were 
soon eradicated with the conversion of old- 
growth forest to small farms and fragmented, 
successional woodlands. 

Even so, the past 40 years have brought a 

resurgence of those game species able to sur- 
vive in the patchy, isolated habitat we've left 
standing. Deer are abundant throughout Vir- 
ginia — some regions are in fact overpopulat- 
ed in the face of extinct predators and 
diminished human hundng. Bear and turkey 
populations are also expanding where habitat 
permits, bears being dependent upon sizeable 
contiguous areas of roadless acreage and 
largely confined to the environs of protected 
parks and forests. 

Not all is rosy with native game species, 
however: The ruffed grouse continues its long 
slow withdrawal from the mountain forests it 
has graced for eons. With a stubborn decline 
of over three percent annually, it is clear to 
state biologists that sufficient habitat is not 
being retained to support this species in 
healthy, expanding populations. In even 
worse condition is the bobwhite quail, the si- 
lencing of whose cheerful cry on Virginia 
farms is sadly the case throughout its range, a 

victim of widespread monocultural farming, 
biocides, and feral cat predation. 

Throughout today's rapidly changing 
commonwealth we see escalating devastation 
of historic landscapes of forest and farmland. 
Residential and commercial development 
continue to creep southward, devouring 
thousands of acres of open space with com- 
muter subdivisions, strip malls, and roaring 
highways. The physical character of Virginia 
is fast becoming indistinguishable from the 
overdeveloped regions to our north, and 
many of our rural landowners are anxiously 
seeking a means of assurance that their family 
farms will remain free and open for the com- 
ing generations. 

The coldwater currents and brooding 
forests of Bath County may seem a safe dis- 
tance away from the urbanizing chaos of our 
less fortunate regions, but even here there are 
increasingly visible signs of the development 
fever that is infecdng the lower Shenandoah 






' A ■?•• 




Courtesy of Taylor Cole 

Valley. Second homes and vacation cabins are 
springing up as word of Bath's outstanding 
beauty is spread, and large-scale development 
remains a constant threat. According to their 
2007—2012 Comprehensive Plan, Bath resi- 
dents included the following in what they val- 
ued most about their county: "wide open 
spaces; healthy air; no huge 'superstores'; very 
few housing developments;" and "hunting." 
In other words, Bath residents seek to keep 
things largely as they are, and don't wish to 
replicate the soulless development patterns 
that have robbed so much ol Virginia of its 
natural beauty. 

These very hopes and concerns are what 
persuaded Lance Lyons to place a conserva- 
tion easement on his family's historic Bath 
County property, a 2,500 acre for-profit 
hunting camp adjoining the George Wash- 
ington National Forest called Green Valley 
Hunter's Paradise. Lying south of the Deer- 
field Valley between Millboro and 

Williamsville, the managed hunting camp 
provides bow, black powder, rifle, and shot- 
gun hunts for deer, turkey, and upland birds 
such as quail, grouse, and pheasant. Guided 
fishing trips for riverside trout and Lake 
Moomaw bass are available, as are boating, 
hiking, mountain biking, and bountiful 
wildlife watching. The Stuarts Run Conserva- 
tion Site, nearly 200 acres of shale barrens rec- 
ognized by the state's Division of Natural 
Heritage as harboring endangered plant 
species, is also protected by the easement. 

The property offers cabins, catered meals, 
and 50 miles of hiking trails winding through 
the magnificent Allegheny countryside to 
provide urbanites with a means of temporary 
mental refuge. The reasonable fees the owners 
charge for these sporting experiences — along 
with the tax benefits associated with their do- 
nation of a conservation easement — are what 
have allowed the family to retain this hand- 
some property intact and undeveloped. 

Pictured here, Laura Lyons with her 
grandson Luke (L) and son Lance (R). 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 15 

w .^ 

Why pay someone to go hunting, that most 
independent and American of activities? In days 
not so distant past most anyone who lived in the 
country could easily find private property to hunt 
on — all it took was a knock on the door and a po- 
lite request. But in recent years things have 
changed dramatically, and hunting opportimities 
on private lands are rapidly constricting. One ob- 
vious reason for the increasing difficulty with 
which hunters are able to locate an agreeable 
landowTier is the imfortimate legacy of prior visi- 
tors who failed to live up to the standards of 
sportsmanship: spent shells, gut piles, opened 
gates, and trampled crops have too often been the 
reward for a farmers generosity. 

An even more insidious problem is the con- 
tinued erosion of viable wildlife habitat to hunt 
in. The fiature of hunting in the United States is 
dependent upon our securing and preserving ad- 
equate habitat to suppon game species and other 
wildlife. As most of the country's remaining habi- 
tat is in private hands, it is necessary for landown- 
ers who hope to keep their woods and fields alive 
and productive to act now to protect their land- 
scapes after they've gone. Conservation ease- 
ments provide a proven, permanent means of 
guaranteeing that hunting habitat will remain 
open and available to fixture hunters, their fami- 
lies and their friends, in perpetuity. And as the 
Lyons family has shown, protecting wdldlife habi- 
tat can be not only personally rewarding but 
profitable, as well. 

There are many misconceptions about con- 
servation easements, including the stale chestnut 
that the donation of an easement somehow 
means that you're giving up land ownership. This 
is false, as are the persistent fables about property 
under easement somehow becoming worthless, 
or controlled by the government, or inalienable, 
or "locked up " and forever unusable. Tout au 
contraire . . . what a conservation easement really 
does is provide landowners with a way to perma- 
nendy protect the most valuable features of their 
property, which in the Lyons's case is hunting 
habitat and, perhaps of even greater value, deep 
family ties to the land. Easements permanendy 
remove the threat of inappropriate or unwanted 
development and allow landowners and their de- 
scendants to enjoy the special features of their 
property over the long term while it remains 
commercially available, whether for farming, 
forestry, or hunting and fishing. 

"This farm was built on blood, sweat, and 
tears, " says Lance Lyons, "starting with my mom 
and dad and going on to my generation and now 
to my kids' generation. Holding onto family 



land, especially large tracts of wooded moun- 
tain land, is something you don't see much 
these days, and putting it in easement helps us 
keep it available to sportsmen who might not 
have their own land to hunt and fish." 

Lances mother, Laura Lyons, has been in- 
strumental in keeping the Green Valley 
Hunter's Paradise an ongoing and viable con- 
cern. With her husband. Lance's late father 
Marvin, Laura began assembling the tracts that 
comprise the family property in the 1 960s, first 
as a private hunting club and since the early 
1990s as a commercial enterprise. Lance has 
been aaively managing the club's wildlife habi- 
tat for a quarter century, and now offers his 
years of experience as a consultant to other 
landowners seeking to maximize their proper- 
ty's hunting value. Lance's son Luke and 
daughter Grace are also expected to be involved 
in the family business in the years to come. 

Careful attention to detail, from food 
plots and cornfields to stocked ponds and com- 
fortable guest accommodations, has con- 
tributed to the preserve's lasting popularity. 
"We have all types of clientele," says Lance, 
"fi"om locals to people fi-om Maine, Florida, 
and all across the country. Sportsmen come 
here to relax and pursue their passions in the 
most beautifijl outdoors setting imaginable. " 
The pristine hunting environment is no acci- 
dent: Controlled burns, carefiJly targeted log- 
ging, and streamside buffer retention are 
central features of the business's profitability. 

The Lyons family believes that perma- 
nently protecting their land will further con- 

tribute to their successful business model, 
and this is surely true — if only because less 
proactive landowners will one day face the 
development of their property by real estate 
speculators. Make no mistake: Privately-held 
open space that is not given full legal protec- 
tion through a conservation easement will 
eventually be developed once your personal 
control over its fate is ended. It's simply in- 

These are tough times, for Bath residents 
and everyone else. Many rural landowners are 
concerned about their ability to retain family 
farms and other open spaces when there are 
so many bills to pay. As the preservation of 
farms, forests, wildlife habitat, and other 
open spaces is in the public interest, both fed- 
eral and state governments offer economic 
rewards to easement donors. Virginia's gener- 
ous tax credit system provides landowners 
without significant income tax burdens to ac- 
tually sell their unusable credits to individuals 
and corporations for cash. 

And while the easement donor relin- 
quishes his right to turn his farm into a subdi- 
vision, title and all other private property 
rights — including the right to sell it, lease it, 
or pass it down to heirs — remain with the 
landowner, as does the right to use the land in 
any way that doesn't harm its recognized con- 
servation values. In essence, what the ease- 
ment donor is giving away is something he 
never wanted: the right to destroy those as- 
pects of his land that mean the most to him. 

"The easement program helps large 

landowners without much available cash to 
retain their property," Lance says. "I'm wor- 
ried that the General Assembly might do 
something to reduce the value of the tax credit 
program or end it completely, because land 
management is expensive, and selling our 
credits helped a lot in allowing us to preserve 
all the property." 

"In fact, " Lance continues, "the ease- 
ment pretty much saved our farm from being 
sold piecemeal." 

Lance Lyons says his family placed their 
hunting camp under easement to provide it 
with permanent protection, and that his do- 
nation experience demonstrated to him that 
land preservation and financial gain can be 
mutually compatible. "The best thing about 
donating our easement," he says, "is that the 
land hasn't changed at all. That's what I like — 
knowing that this wildlife habitat will be pro- 
tected forever. As time goes on, it becomes 
more and more important to me." 

If you want to keep things the way they 
are, and sleep easy knowing that your hard 
work in managing and maintaining your 
rural land will be retained as a legacy for the 
future, why not take advantage of sellable tax 
credits and the other benefits of easement do- 
nation? Enjoy the feeling of lasting content- 
ment, knowing that your own special slice of 
paradise is forever out of harm's way. ?f 

A member of the Vir^nia State Bar, a freelance 
environmental writer and filmmaker, William H. 
Funk has written previously about conservation issues 
andhuntingfor Virginia Wildlife. 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 17 



a new dog for 


or bird hunting, 

look at your 

full range 


story by Clarke C. Jones 


ell, what do you think of 
her? " my friend asked as 
we stood in his driveway 
admiring his new luxury vehicle. 

"Aren't you the traditionalist who always 
says, 'Buy American'?" I responded. 

"You are right," he replied somewhat 
sheepishly, "but the C^adillac and Lincoln just 
don't have the same cachet they used to have. 
Besides, this car is made in America — it just 
didn't originate in America." 

"When did you start using words like 
'cachet' in a sentence? " I inquired. 

"Ever since a French company agreed to 

buy my construction business. Everyone has 
gone global now, " he countered. "Good or 
bad, things just aren't the way they used to 

As I headed home in my less-than-luxu- 
rious pickup, I thought about what my friend 
said and how things have changed in this 
country, not just in car selection, but in so 
many other ways, including bird and water- 
fowl hunting. Loss of habitat has certainly 
played some role in the selection of dogs we 
use to hunt. But it is not the only factor. 

It did not seem so long ago that a 
Labrador or Chesapeake retriever was the 
only dog you considered when hunting ducks 
and an English pointer or English setter was 
all you would want for bird hunting. About 
25 years ago, I started to notice a few conti- 



Left, Flat-Coated Retriever, and above, Vizsla. ©Dwight Dyke 

nental imports, like brittanys or the occasion- 
al German shorthaired pointer, in the field. 
Whether you shoot pheasant on a preserve or 
waterfowl in a marsh, it's worth looking at a 
few different hunting breeds that are now 
available but may not rise to the forefront of 
discussions when considering a bird dog. 

The Flat-Coated Retriever 

Let's start with a dog that many consider one 
of the best looking of all dog breeds, the flat- 
coated retriever. This longhaired, raven beau- 
ty could be the Elizabeth Taylor or Kim Kar- 
dashian of the dog world and looks very smart 
trotting around the show ring. However, the 
flat-coated retriever can perform in the field 
as well. 

Hill Wellford, who lives on the Rappa- 
hannock River near Caret, says this about 
flatcoats: "My wife and 1 have owned both 
Labs and flat-coats over the years and both 
breeds have wonderful and loving disposi- 
tions. Our experience with flat-coats is they 
are relatively easy to train, absolutely love to 
hunt waterfowl and upland game, and have 
excellent noses. They are great at finding a 
cripple in a marsh and at trailing a bird that 
has crawled away, " added Hill. 

It is Wellford's opinion that flatcoats, 
though full of energy, are a litde calmer than 
Labs in a duck blind. If you have ever been 
bowled over by an eager Chesapeake or 
Labrador while in the close confines of a duck 
blind, you know how important a quiet, calm 
retriever can be. Who should not own a flat- 
coat? Wellford cautioned, "Flat-coats are very 
energetic and require walks and daily exer- 
cise... I would not recommend them to a 
family that doesn't have the time to give them 
regular exercise opportunities. " 

The Vizsla 

Imported from Hungary, the vizsla is a medi- 
um-built, short-coated and rust-colored 
pointing dog whose breed history goes back 
over 1 ,000 years. They are known to be clean, 
light-shedding dogs. The vizsla is considered a 
versatile hunting breed and it will hunt fur as 
well as feather. It put its stamp on the term 
versatile when it became the first dog breed to 
become an AKC Quintuple Champion, 
meaning that one vizsla won championships 
in five different categories. 

I had the opportunity to watch Darin 
Strickland work his vizsla at Blandfield Plan- 
tation near Tappahannock, and — take it 
from me — this dog did not mess around. It 
can cover a lot of ground in a short period of 
time and seems to do so effortlessly and with 
style. Strickland has been hunting with vizslas 
for a dozen years now. According to Darin, 
not only are vizslas good hunting dogs, they 
are affectionate family dogs as well. 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 19 

"Vizslas do not make good kennel— run 
dogs. They want to be with you in your house 
and near you. They are excellent pets for peo- 
ple with an active lifestyle." Darin advises those 
who may be interested in acquiring a vizsla: "If 
you intend to hunt, get your vizsla from 
known field stock. The best come fi-om field 
trial stock. You will not find a well-bred vizsla 
waiting for you in the classifieds of your news- 

The Spinone Italiano 

The Italians have been making firearms for 
over 400 years. They have been using hunting 
dogs for over 1 ,000 years and boast of two of 
the oldest hunting breeds in the world: the 
bracco and the spinone Italiano. The spinone 
(pron. spee-NO-nay) is a muscular, versatile 
hunting dog, often conftised at first glance 
with German wirehaired pointers. Unlike the 
German wirehaired pointer, the spinone does 
not have an undercoat. They are a close-hunt- 
ing dog, making them ideal for upland hunts. 
Breeder and hunter Ron Rosinski of Powhatan 
has hunted over spinoni (plural) since 1 996 on 
grouse, woodcock, and pheasant. Although 
Ron has hunted over brittanys in the past, and 
believes them to be a close-working dog, it is 
his opinion the spinone is "more attuned to the 
hunter." The spinone also has the reputation of 
being a friendly and loyal family companion. 

The Boykin Spaniel 

The all-American boykin is the state dog of 
South Carolina, and compared to some breeds 
in this article, it is a relative newcomer to the 
hunting scene. This brown, or chocolate-col- 
ored, dog of medium height has a wavy outer 
coat of medium length as well as an undercoat. 
It can hunt most feathered game where any 
flushing dog is used. A number of Virginians 
have already discovered the flexibility of this 
breed. Carson Quarles, near Roanoke, believes 
the boykin to be a fine turkey dog, while Harri- 
ett Clark, from Sutherlin, field trials her 
boykins and believes they are excellent dogs 
when hunting pheasant. Other owners believe 
this 30- to 40-lb. canine is the perfect dog for 
duck hunting when in a boat. If you have ever 
tried to pull a 90-lb. Lab back into your jon- 
boat after it has made a retrieve, you can cer- 
tainly appreciate having one of these little 
brown, dynamo boykins do the retrieving for 

Top, Spinone, and above, Boykin 

The Deutsch Drahthaar 

The Deuthsch drahthaar (pron. dra-thar) 
originated in Germany and, like so many Eu- 
ropean hunting dogs, it was expected to hunt 
both fiar and feather. In the U.S., however, a 
pointing dog that is sturdy enough for water- 
fowl hunting might be the answer to a wing- 
shooter's prayers. 

"I was looking for a versatile hunting dog 
that I could take both upland and waterfowl 
hunung," said Ben Adamson of Richmond. 
"I've hunted upland game with flushing dogs 
and a number of them range so far out and 
often flush game before you are close enough 
for a good shot. This can be extremely fnis- 
trating — especially when grouse hunting," 
continued Adamson. Ben also believes the 






drahthaar can be a good family dog that likes 
being around its owners. 

Deuthsch-drahthaar breeder Whit John- 
ston from Spout Spring points out that the 
drahthaar is bred through very strict guide- 
lines. "To know you have a true drahthaar, in- 
spect the underside of the dog's right ear for a 
green tattoo," cautioned Whit. "This green 
tattoo number is issued from Germany to the 
breeder after the breeder registers his or her 
puppies." According to Johnston, this is to 
guarantee that you are gening a puppy whose 
entire line comes from hunting stock. 

"When you get the certification that 
your puppy is an acmal deuthsch-drahthaar, 
you are pretty much assured that both its par- 
ents have passed at least two versatile hunting 
tests, had their hips X-rayed and blood tested, 
and its teeth, eyes, coat, and confirmation are 
all within the breed standard," he added. 

The Nova Scotia 
Duck Tolling Retriever 

This medium-sized, double coated dog loves 
to retrieve and is the smallest of the retriever 
class, though it does resemble a small golden 
retriever. It is far more aaive than a golden, 

Hunter and fioll-time trainer Paul Kartes, 

who has hunted over all types of retrievers, ex- 
plains his desire to hunt over tollers. "I want- 
ed a smaller retriever. While a toller can 
compete in a 200-yard retrieve, most of my 
'real world' shots in hunting are rarely longer 
than 30 yards. The toller has a great nose, a 
desire to retrieve, and energy to spare, but it 
also knows when to turn it 'ofF at home. The 
toller personality fits my type of hunting and 
my personality. They are not like Labs and 
goldens, where they are everybody's friend. 
They know who their family is and that is 
generally where they will seek attention. They 
are not mean or vicious to strangers but can 
be aloof to them." 

Ed Callender, from Woodbridge, has 
been hunting with a toller for over seven years 
and wanted a smaller hunting companion. A 
male toller will run about 45-55 pounds, 
which works a lot better when hunting out of 
his 1 2-foot pirogue. According to Callender, 
tollers are highly adaptable but cautious, so if 
you plan to hunt them they will need access 
to water and open areas where they can train 
and get used to field conditions and be ex- 
posed to a wide variety of new environments. 

"They need exercise and contact with 
people, so leaving them in a crate all day is not 
a good option. Tollers from hunting stock 
may be difficult to find, cautions Callender, 

so do your research. "If you want a great hunt- 
ing companion, a superb family dog that will 
make you laugh at least once a day, I recom- 
mend a toller," said Ed. 

The reader should be mindfiil that this 
magazine is not endorsing any particular 
breed here and that a number of quotes come 
from breeders and owners who may have a 
natural bias toward the breed they own. Every 
dog breed comes with its own issues, and any- 
one interested in any breed should do his re- 
search before purchasing one. Most hunting 
breeds require daily or regular, vigorous exer- 
cise. Many breeds have their own organiza- 
tions, which offer good resources for learning 
the specifics of a particular dog's character. 
Good breeders are particular about their breed 
of choice, and the last thing they want to see is 
a client buying a pup based on how cute it is 
and not making a knowledgeable selection. 
Too many dogs wind up with rescue organiza- 
tions or in shelters because a new puppy 
owner didn't do his homework. ?f 

Clarke C. Jones is a freelance writer who spends his 
spare time hunting up good stories with his black Lab, 
Luke. You can contact Clarke or Luke by going to 
their website at www. clarkecjones. com. 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 21 

K iffiiVrt. bin 

Living with) 

by Cristina Santiestevan 

hether it's a deer in the garden or a black bear in the trash- 
can, wildlife seems to have a way of making itself known, 
and sometimes in an entirely unwelcome manner. The 
invasions of these hungry animals are easier to understand, however, 
when we remind ourselves that the deer, bear, and raccoon were here long 
before our homes and towns existed. We are the interlopers, and it is our 
responsibility to find ways to coexist. This isn't difficult, and it is often 

According to the Department's bird speciiilist, biologist Sergio Harcl- 
ing, "The key is developing an improved understanding of and apprecia- 
tion for wild animals through education. I encourage folks to learn what 
they can about their local wildlife, how their actions and decisions may 
positively or negatively impact those species, and the basic dos and don'ts 
of interacting with wildlife." 

By providing wild animiils with space of their own — while also pro- 
tecting our trashcans and vegetable gardens — we increase the odds that 
our interactions with wildlife will be positive ones. 





Wild animals need space to nnove about 
and take care of their needs. By giving them 
that space and limiting opportunities for 
them to become a nuisance— such as get- 
ting into trash (L)— humans and wildlife can 
continue to coexist. 

1 . % r >v^ "< \ 

Keeping the "Wild "in Wildlife 

Wild animals don't distinguish between natu- 
ral and artificial food sources. A bear is just as 
likely to forage from an unsecured trashcan as 
fi-om a rotting tree stump. Likewise, a deer will 
readily eat both wild spicebush and cultivated 
peach trees. The animals don't recognize your 
ownership of that trashcan or peach tree. They 
are simply looking for their next meal. 

Nothing works perfectly, but exclusion 
works the best. Simply don't give wild animals 
access to your garbage, your garden, or other 

•> If bears, raccoons or possums are invad- 
ing your trashcans, store the filled cans in 
a secure garage or shed. If that's not possi- 
ble, use chains or straps to secure the lid. 

♦ Protecting gardens from hungry deer, 
rabbits, and groundhogs is more difficult. 
Deer will leap fences taller than six feet, 
and will also crawl under fencing material 
unless it's secured to the ground. Rabbits 
and groundhogs complicate matters by 
digging under fences. The best solution 
may be a combination of fencing and ol- 
factory repellents, which are available at 
most hardware and gardening stores. 

<• Bird netting protects fruiting trees and 
shrubs fi-om hungry birds and may also 
discourage squirrels and deer. 

♦ Sound can also be used to keep wildlife 
away fi^om gardens. Position a radio near 
your favorite plants, and set the dial to 
your station of choice. The human voices 
will warn animals to steer clear. But, be 
warned: Some animals will acclimate to 
sound more quickly than others. Slow 
this process by regularly moving the 
stereo or changing the station. 

Here, a doe nurses a fawn that may later 
be left alone for hours. Avoid the tempta- 
tion to interfere, as the mother is never far 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 23 

Four Animals 

That Rarely 

Require Rescue 

Fawns. Mother does often leave their 
fawns for hours at a time, relying on the 
fawn's natural camouflage to protect it 
from the hungry eyes of predators. 
These fawns haven't been aban- 
doned—their mothers return regularly 
to feed them. When the fawns are 
older and stronger, they will join their 
mothers as they forage. 

Baby rabbits. Like deer, female rab- 
bits spend very little time with their 
young. This is not neglect. Instead, by 
staying away (except to feed the little 
ones), the mother rabbit is reducing the 
risk of predators discovering her ba- 
bies. Unless the babies appear thin or 
weak, they are probably fine. 

Young squirrels. Cute as can be, 
young squirrels don't look nearly tough 
enough to fend for themselves. But as 
long as they are moving without trou- 
ble, they are probably fine. 

Fledgling birds. They seem so help- 
less—only partially feathered and 
often clumsy in flight and when perch- 
ing. But, if the young bird is able to fly at 
all, then it should be fine. Its parents 
will watch and care for it until it learns 
to fend for itself 

Learn to Recognize 
When Wildlife Needs Help 

Most "rescued" wild animals aren't really in 
need of rescue, and countless healthy animals 
are removed from the wild by well-intentioned 
people every year. However, there are always 
exceptions. According to DGIF veterinarian 
Megan Kirchgessner, the most common rea- 
sons for veterinary care include vehicle in- 
juries, gunshot wounds, poisoning, and in the 
case of birds, collisions with windows. 

Help prevent injury by staying alert while 
driving, especially at dawn and dusk when 
wildlife are most active. Protect animals from 
accidental poisoning by carefully securing all 
chemicals. Antifreeze — which is extremely 
toxic — is especially attractive to animals, be- 
cause it tastes sweet. 

If you find a wild animal that does seem 
to require assistance, please do not touch or 
move it. Instead, follow these steps; 

1 . Observe the animal from a safe distance. 
Take note of its physical condition, state 
of awareness, and other signs of injury or 

2. Review the information provided on the 
Department's website and The Wildlife- 
Center of Virginia website. This will help 
you determine if the animal really needs 

3. If the animal is in need of assistance, con- 
tact a licensed wildlife rehabilitator for 
guidance. A list of Virginia-licensed reha- 
bilitators can be found on the DGIF 

Some birds may require nothing more than a 
little momentary assistance; for example, a 
bird that is dazed after flying into a window 
may just need a quiet place to recuperate. Give 
the injured bird a spot that's safe from cats and 
other predators, and it may be just fine. Like- 
wise, baby birds (those whose wings don't have 
feathers) can be returned to their nest without 
any trouble; It's a mydi drat adult birds will re- 
ject their chicks if they've been touched by hu- 

Please note that it is illegal to keep wild 
animals without a permit. Any animal that re- 
quires actual care must be given to a licensed 
wildlife rehabilitator. Some species, such as 
state-threatened bald eagles and peregrine fal- 
cons, require specialized care and are taken to 
The Wildlife Center of Virginia in Waynes- 

Milkweed attracts many pollinators and 
butterflies, and is critical to the monarch 





Native Plants 

Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa). These 
long blooming and easy-care flowers at- 
tract native bees and happy swarms of 
butterflies, including monarch caterpillars 
which eat nothing else. 

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea). 
This summer and fall bloomer bears large 
purple blooms, which attract native polli- 
nators. The seed heads are irresistible to 

Blazing star (Liatris scariosa). The brilliant 
lavender-hued flower spikes are irre- 
sistible to gardeners and pollinators alike. 
Plant several of these in a clump for mid- 
summer color. 

American elderberry (Sambucus nigra 
ssp. canadensis). This shade-tolerant 
shrub bears beautiful white flowers, 
which are followed by large clusters of 
deep purple berries. The berries are edi- 
ble, if you can convince the birds to share. 

Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). 
As small to mid-sized trees, red cedars 
provide year-round shelter for wildlife 
(and privacy for gardeners). The blue 
berries attract flocks of hungry birds in the 
late summer and fall, including the cedar 

Rough-stemmed goldenrod (Solidago ru- 
gosa). Despite its reputation for causing 
hay fever (which is really caused by rag- 
weed), goldenrod is actually an excellent 
choice for a splash of late-season color, 
nectar, and pollen in the garden. 

Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis). Want 
to attract hummingbirds? Plant a sprawl- 
ing clump of cardinal flower and wait for 
the bright red flowers to burst into bloom. 
It won't be long before the hummingbirds 
show up. 

Find more suggestions for native plants 
on the DGIF website: 

Ruby-throated hummingbird on 
purple coneflower. 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 25 

Give Wildlife its Own Space 

While wildlife rarely needs to be rescued, it 
often does benefit from a little human 
help. In particular, homeowners and 
renters can readily assist local wildlife — 
from bumble bees and butterflies to foxes 
and owls — by maintaining a wildlife- 
friendly yard and landscape that provide 
food, water, and shelter. As additional land 
is developed for commercial and residen- 
tial uses, these backyard oases become 
more and more important to our native 
wildlife species. 

Looking to welcome a little more 
wildlife into your yard? Consider these ad- 

♦ Native flowers supply ready nectar for 
pollinators, including monarch but- 
terflies and ruby-throated humming- 

♦ Native fruit-bearing and nut-bearing 
trees, shrubs, and brambles provide 
food for a wealth of wildlife, from box 
turtles to black bears. 

♦> Birdfeeders provide supplemental food 
for wild birds. Providing high-quality 
seeds — black oil sunflower, thistle seed, 
white millet — ensures that birds are 
eating a healthy diet. Suet is also a good 
choice, especially in the winter. Be 
mindful, however, that depending on 
where you live, such bird feeders may 
attract other animals — squirrels, deer, 
and bears, in particular. 

♦ Water is always welcomed, especially 
during Virginia's often dry summers. 
Add a small birdbath or a garden pond. 
Either will attract birds, mammals, and 
amphibians for a drink or a swim. 

♦ Shelter is the final ingredient in a 
wildlife-friendly habitat. Dense shrubs 
provide birds with a safe place to build 
nests, while tall grasses and wildflowers 
offer shelter to cottontail rabbits, bob- 
white quail, and red fox. ?f 

Cristina Santiestevan writes about wildlife and the 
environment from her home in Virginia's Blue 
Ridge Mountains. 


♦ Not sure if an animal requires assistance? Observe its behavior and review the in- 
formation on the Department's website ( 
and The Wildlife Center of Virginia's website ( 

♦ Find a sick or injured animal? Locate a Virginia-licensed wildlife rehabilitator on- 

♦ Interested in becoming licensed as a wildlife rehabilitator in Virginia? Begin by lo- 
cating a licensed rehabilitator near you (link above) to discuss the training, time 
commitment, and costs associated with wildlife rehabilitation. Licensed rehabili- 
tators can provide the education and support you will need when first starting 
out. You'll find additional information— including a list of classes— on The Wildlife 
Center ofVirginia's website: 

♦:• Curious about starting your own Habitat at Home^? You'll find plenty of informa- 
tion on the DGIF website ( and on the website for 
the Virginia Native Plant Society ( 

♦ Want to learn even more? Check out these books for advice on happily coexisting 
with wildlife: 

* K\d's Easy to Create Wildlife Habitats, by Emily Stetson. 

* National Wildlife Federation Attracting Birds, Butterflies & Backyard 
Wildlife, by David Mizejewski and Glee Barre. 

* Noah's Garden, by Sara Stein. 

* Bringing Nature Home, by Douglas Tallamy. 

* Rescuing Wildlife: A Guide to Helping Injured and Orphaned Animals, by 
Peggy Sue Hentz. 


Above, purple fincii on bird feedt 





Above, elderberry; below, cardinal flower 


If^ lem 








55sr. . 









r .St 




m r 





Jfrl- <1\V 

story and photos 
by Bruoe Ingram 

or conservation-minded outdoor 
enthusiasts, it's prudent to take the 
1^ long view. Today, for example, we 

benefit from the actions ot previous genera- 
tions that had the foresight to establish such 
places in our state as the George Washington 
and Jefferson National Forest, the Blue Ridge 
Parkway, and the beginnings of the Old Do- 
minions wildlife management area system. 

And no doubt future Virginians will 
praise the current generation for its wisdom 
in adding yet another public land to the 
fold— the 4,233-acre Short Hills Wildlife 
Management Area (WMA). The purchase is 
an inspirational story of cooperation among 
several key organizations that share the com- 
mon goal of land conservation. The Wildlife 
Foundation of Virginia (WFV) partnered 
with the Virginia Department of Game and 
Inland Fisheries (DGIF), the Virginia Out- 
doors Foundation (VOF), and The Conser- 
vation Fund to protect this land which 
straddles Rockbridge and Botetourt counties. 
Jenny West, executive director of the 
WFV, explains in brief how the WMA came 
into existence. "The Short Hills property had 
been identified by the Department as a high- 
priority public lands acquisidon because of its 
unique wildlife and natural resources, rugged 
terrain, abundant game species, and highly 
visible and easily accessible location along I- 
81," she says. "The Foundation acted as the 
private partner for DGIF in this transaction. 
Using a loan from The Conservation Fund, 
WFV purchased the southern half of the 
property as an interim owner until DGIF 
could accumulate the necessary fiands to pur- 
chase the property Irom WFV. 

"The Virginia Outdoors Foundation, 
with funding from the Virginia Land Conser- 
vation Foundation, purchased the remainder 
on behalf of DGIF At the final project clos- 
ing, DGIF purchased WFV's interest in die 
property using federal grant funds. VOF gift- 
ed their interest in Short Hills to DGIF, and 
the property is now wholly owned and man- 
aged by DGIF as the Short Hills WMA." 

This stream and its buffer zone offer much- 
needed habitat for a range of aquatic and 
terrestrial species. 

NOVEMBER 201 1 ♦ 




Touring Short Hills 

About a year back, I accompanied region- 
id wildlife manager Jay Jeffreys and then- 
board-member Sherry Crumley to tour 
the new WMA. On our way there, 
( rumley remarked that the location of 
ihis WMA is especially wonderful for 
sportsmen in the region, since they lost 
39,000 acres of hunting lands several 
\'ears ago when MeadWestvaco sold its 
properties. Jeffreys added that hunters, 
birders, hikers, and wildlife watchers 
will appreciate the diversity of wildlife 
found here. 

Indeed, every stop the three of us 
made that day confirmed his state- 
ment. Our initiiil foray took us to a 
00-acre field at the bottom of the 
iroperty. Although the tempera- 
ture was in the 90s, 1 heard and saw 
indigo buntings, goldfinches, car- 
dinals. Eastern bluebirds, doves, 
field sparrows, and Carolina 
wrens, among others. Black wal- 
nuts, persimmons, and red 
cedars crowd that field. 

"I can't wait until our staff can 
do some work on this field, " 
noted Jeffreys. "We could em- 
ploy some rotational mowing, 
thin some red cedars but leave 
others for thermal cover, plant 
some warm-season grasses, 
control the fescue and or- 
chard grass, and do some 
prescribed burning to en- 
courage wildflowers and a 
variety of forbs." 

Jeffreys also emphasized 
that key historical struc- 
tures in the field would be 
preserved; specifically, 
some hunt club buildings 
and a hand-laid stone 
bridge constructed as 
part of a small-gauge 
railroad line. 

Two access roads wind through Short 
Hills, and we took one to begin the long trek 
up the mountain. Several tributaries of the 
James and Maury rivers, most notably Cedar 
Creek, flow through the property. We paused 
at a small branch. Beech trees, shagbark and 
mockernut hickories, umbrella magnolias, 

Trip Planning 

DGIF Map: 
Short Hills is one of 39 state WMAs, 
which together total over 200,000 acres 

The Conservation Fund: 

Virginia Outdoors Foundation: 

Wildlife Foundation of Virginia: 

Botetourt County Tourism:; (540) 473-1167 

Rockbridge Regional Tourism:; 


witch hazels, paw paws, basswoods, and 
Christmas ferns thrive along the stream. As 
soon as I debarked from the vehicle, I noticed 
the cooler air and heard scarlet tanagers, wood 
thrushes, and downy, pileated, and red-bel- 
lied woodpeckers. 

"This rich, bottomland soil creates an- 
other kind of habitat," Jeffreys explained. 
"The first 1 00 yards on either side of a stream 
like this is where you will typically find the 
greatest diversity of woody and herbaceous 
plants in any area, and the Short Hills proper- 
ty is no exception. I bet bats would like roost- 
ing under the bark of those shagbark 

A large portion of the land at Short Hills 
features upland habitat and, leaving the 
stream behind, we continued our drive up the 
mountain. Our next sojourn was an un- 
planned one, at a mid-level slope adjacent to a 
hardwood hollow. 

"Is that a Carolina hemlock!" exchiimed 
Jeffreys as he abruptly stopped the vehicle. 

We both examined the evergreen and 
concurred that it was indeed a Carolina hem- 
lock, which is much less common than the 
Canadian hemlock. Nearby grew striped 
maples, another shade-loving tree that thrives 
in cooler micro-habitats. An Eastern wood 
peewee called out from the hollow as did a 
yellow-billed cuckoo. Scarlet oaks populate 
the cove here, and Crumley found an acorn 
that had already dropped. 




Jeffreys exar 
road line. 

a hand-laid stone bridge constructed as part of a small-gauge 

A view from the top of the ridgeline that runs from just south of Lexington north to 
Natural Bridge. 

We resumed our drive up the mountain 
on a very rough, rutted road and it was not 
long before we heard the hissing sound of a 
tire steadily deflating - apparently a victim of 
the terrain. But this unplanned stop on a dry, 
upland slope gave us iJie opportunity to ob- 
serve yet another pocket of habitat, where 
chestnut oaks, red maples, poplars, and sas- 
safras thrive, along with rattlesnake plantain, 
spotted jewelweed, and black cohosh. 

At last we reached the peak of the 
property — at first glance a dry, desolate 
plateau with small trees and shrubs, but in 
reality, home to yet another set of wildlife 

"What a great place to spot a black 
bear," remarked Crumley, and Jeffreys 

"Short Hills has a mountain range that 
continues for about 1 1 miles and this type of 

long, unbroken mountaintop terrain is excel- 
lent habitat for black bears," noted the biolo- 
gist. "Plus, there's lots of lood up here for 

Surprisingly, the pinnacle of Short Hills 
does offer a cornucopia of food sources. Jef- 
freys pointed out some aptly-named bear oak 
trees laden with their tiny acorns. Crumley lo- 
cated some low-bush blueberries and, a few 
minutes later, the high-bush variety. The 
berries from both species are equally deli- 
cious. Naturally, the three of us took a break 
to uncover and enjoy the sweet treats. 

The area also grows trees that provide 
food options preferred by bears: Allegheny 
chinquapins and black gums. Catawba rho- 
dodendron and mountain laurel thrive here 
as well, as do table mountain pines — all pro- 
viding bedding areas for whitetails. Below us, 
we could hear Cedar Creek coursing down 
the mountainside, and along the road, two 
species that we noted in the bottomland 
field — mourning doves and towhees — 
seemed equally at home up top. 

Our excursion down the mountain was 
uneventful except for an episode when I re- 
moved a box turtle from the road. In typical 
terrapin fashion, the creature was indifferent 
to my assistance and upon picking it up, the 
turtle simply retreated inside its shell. 

I find it impossible, though, to be indif- 
ferent to the charms of the Short Hills 
Wildlife Management Area. I remarked to 
my companions that I plan on squirrel hunt- 
ing here come fall. 

"Be our guest," smiled Jeffreys. ?f 

Bruce Ingram has written four books about river 
fishing. For more information, contact him at 
be_ingram C^uno. com. 


NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 29 





'Beth Hater 

Trout Lessons: Freewheeling Tactics and 
Alternative Techniques for the Difficult 

by Ed Engle 

20 1 Stackpole Books 

Color photographs, illustrations 

$29.95 Hardcover 

"What do you do u'he)i your usual tactics don't 
work, when your dependable flies let you down, 
when the water's actingfininy? What do you do 
when your best attempts to match the hatch and 
make drag-free-drift presentations fliil? Ed 
Engle shares what he's learned in straight- 
forward, no-nonsense lessons for finding and 
taking the toughest trout. " 

-Editor, Stackpole Books 

Even the most resourceRil angler can get into 
a rut. When the going gets tough, instinctive- 
ly clinging to favorite fly patterns and precon- 
ceived notions about how to fish a given body 
of water can hintler fishing success. But when 
the going gets tough, the tough get innova- 
tive, and noted author and fishing guide Ed 
Engle, who honed his fishing and fly t)'ing 
techniques plying the diverse waters ot the 
western United States, offers frequently over- 
looked or underutilized dry and wet fly 
strategies that can be incorporated into any 
anglers creel of tricks. 

Engle invites readers to cast off compla- 
cency by rethinking accepted wisdom about 
where fish are hiding, and the means by 
which trout can be persuaded to take a fly. 
This is not to say that Engle is some rogue 
species of fisherman dependent on esoteric 
methods, but rather, one who happily melds 
traditional technique with alternative presen- 
tation, and who is also comfortable consider- 
ing those fishing intangibles — an instinctive 
feel or intuition that, once developed, can en- 
able an angler to think more like a fish, 

whether the water is clear or muddy or the 
level, running high or barely a trickle. 

Engle tempts the angler to consider a 
wide range of alternate nymphing variations 
like purposely adding a non-drag-free lift at 
the end of a dead drift to provoke a strike and 
using the rod to direct drifts around in- 
stream rocks. Engle also illustrates how to use 
strike indicators to best advantage and how to 
maximize strike detection. 

Depending on prevailing conditions, he 
suggests other options such as: pulling a dry 
fly underwater on purpose; skating abstract 
spider patterns; utilizing high-sticking, and 
'dapping" techniques. His fishing wisdom 
also extends to the fly itself For example, 
Engle has consistently pulled trout from 
highly technical, small-fly waters using a 
Zonker streamer pattern, and in the chapter 
titled Oddities, he advocates tying various 
patterns that incorporate a preponderance of 
blue-colored thread, dubbing and ribbing, 
which seem to trigger takes especially in win- 

rhis is a lively volume packed with color 
photos, fly patterns, casting technique illus- 
trations, and engaging first-person accounts 
of success using non-traditional methods, or 
methods some anglers may have merely for- 
gotten. My personal favorite is his account of 
meadow stream mousing under a fiill moon. 
Another winner from Stackpole! 

Congratulations to Douglas Dear (L), who recent- 
ly won the prestigious L. L. Bean Outdoor Heroes 
Award for his volunteer work with Project Heal- 
ing Waters Fly Fishing, Inc. Dear has been actively 
involved in the organization since 2007 and 
chairs its board of trustees. In addition to volun- 
teering time and fundraising expertise. Dear 
donates the use of his farm in Syria with access 
to one mile of the bucolic Rose River— which he 
stocks for PHWFF events. Also pictured above (R) 
is Ed Nicholson of PHWFF. Through all-volunteer 
efforts, the organization promotes the physical 
and spiritual healing of wounded and disabled 
military veterans. 

Congratulations to Daniel Rorrer, who 
became the first turkey hunter in NWTF 
history to register a turkey in all lower 48 
states and Alaska this past May! 



Get Involved! 




Pick one up for yourself and others on 
your holiday gift list. Where else can 
you get such a deal, at only $10 each? 

The 201 2 calendar features stunning 
photographs and information about hunting 
seasons, favorable fishing dates and state 
records, wildlife behavior, and more! 

Send your check payable to 
"Treasurer of Virginia" to: 
Virginia Wildlife Calendar 

P.O. Box 11 104 
Richmond, VA 23230-1104 

To pay by VISA or MasterCard, you may order online at 
on our secure site. Please allow/ 4 to 6 weeks for delivery. 

Do You Use a Wildlife 

Management Area or 

Fishing Lake? 

EffectiveJanuaryl, 2012, a Facility Access 

Pernnit will be required when using any 
Department-owned Wildlife Manage- 
ment Area or Fishing Lake. The permit is 
not required for any person holding a valid 
hunting, fishing, or trapping license or a 
current certificate of boat registration 
issued by the Department or for persons 
16 years of age or younger The permit 
requirement does not apply to Depart- 
ment-owned boat ramps or segments of 
the Appalachian Trail on Department- 
owned land. The Facility Access Permit fee 
is $4 for a daily permit or $23 for an annual 
permit and may be purchased online or at 
any license agent. 

You Can Make a Difference 


^^OK T/y^ 


Hunters for the Hungry receives donated deer from successful hunters and funds 
to cover the costs of processing, so that venison may be distributed to those 
in need across the state. Each $40 contribution allows another deer to be accepted. 
Hunters donating an entire deer are not required to pay any part of the processing 

The David Home Hunger Relief Bill gives hunters the opportunity to donate $2 
or more to the program when purchasing a hunting license. One hundred percent 
of each donation goes to providing venison to the hungry. For additional informa- 
tion or to make a donation, visit or call 1-800-352-HUNT 
(4868). Each of us con make a difference. 


This pure albinu duv and fiu'tui i m, 
together frequently in the Franklin area. 
Photo courtesy of professional photogra- 
pher Don Bridgers. 

Congratulations go to Meaghan Stevens, of Ster- 
ling, for her wonderful photograph of a barred owl 
hunkered down during a light snowfall. Meaghan 
used a Canon EOS Digital Rebel SXi SLR camera, ISO 
200, l/250th, f/5.6 to capture this beautiful and 
tranquil image. Great shot Meaghan! 

You are invited to submit one to five of your best 
photographs to "Image of the Month," Virginia 
Wildh'fe Magazine, P.O. Box 11104, 4010 West 
Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23230-1104. Send 
original slides, super high-quality prints, or high- 
res jpeg, tiff, or raw files on a disk and include a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope or other ship- 
ping method for return. Also, please include any 
pertinent information regarding how and where 
you captured the image and what camera and set- 
tings you used, along with your phone number. We 
look forward to seeing and sharing your work with 
our readers. 

NOVEMBER 20n ♦ 31 

I had just put a couple of small, bacon- 
wrapped stuffed pheasant breasts in the 
Hobart. As I started out to the cellar to se- 
lect a nice Bordeaux or Rioja, I looked out 
the window of my dog house and saw the 
alpha female headed for the car, struggling 
with two heavy suitcases. Of Jones was 
"helping" her pack the car by carrying the 
keys. Jones is not one to travel lighdy. He re- 
quires an extra suitcase for what he calls 
"just in case" clothes — as in, just in case 
someone invites him to quail hunt on their 
private shooting estate, or just in case some- 
one invites him to field-test a new Beretta, 
Fausti, or Baserri shotgun at their private 
gun club. It is highly unlikely any of this will 
ever happen, but as Jones says, if you are 
going to dream — dream big, just in case. 

Now no one loves a road trip more 
than me and when I see the dog crate going 
into the back of the SUV, I hustle on over to 
find out where we are going. "South Caroli- 
na," says or Jones before I can ask, ". . .land 
of warmer climes, low country seafood, pal- 
metto trees, quail plantations, and Old 
South culture." 

Also the land of fire ants, copperheads, 
cottonmouths, and alligators, I think to 

It seems that the alpha female required 
a change in latitude to improve a change in 
her attitude, as the song goes, and Of Jones 
negotiated a trip to Charleston that just 
happened to coincide with the Southeast- 
ern Wildlife Exposition held every year in 
that fair city. Some of the best wildlife 
artists, sculptors, and carvers in the world 
come to this event. Jones's philosophy is 
this: If you find you have to be walking 
around all day looking at stuff, you might as 
well look at stuff you like to look at. 

As the alpha female went back to the 
house for more provisions, Ol' Jones bent 
down and whispered in my ear. "On the 
way back through South C^arolina, we are 

taking a detour through Camden, where 
the Boykin Spaniel breed is supposed to have 
originated." The bride had seen the breed at 
the Southern Side-by-Side recently and had 
fallen in love with that little dog. Jones 
thought it might encourage her to hunt 
with us more if she had a pup of her own. 

At first, the thought of having to share 
a tummy rub from the alpha female was not 
at all appealing, but the more I thought 
about it, the more the idea made sense. I 
never met an unhappy Boykin or one that 
was not enthused about hunting. Having a 
young, energetic South Carolina "swamp 
poodle" around to chase down cripples, 
squeeze through briars, or retrieve ducks in 
frigid pond water would certainly take a lit- 
tle of the load off me. Besides, a new pup 
translates to new training treats and the 
alpha female is a pushover for puppy eyes. 
So when baby Boykin gets a treat, naturally 
the alpha female is going to toss one my di- 
rection too. 

It seems Ol' Jones had done a little 
homework on Boykins (see page 20). The 
word he had gotten from Jane Sexton of the 
Boykin Spaniel Society is that if you are 
looking for a small, loving, loyal, and ener- 
getic breed that requires (like most humans) 
daily exercise, a Boykin might just be the 
dog for you. Jane also suggested going to the 
website and follow- 
ing their recommendations closely. As for 
hunting, Jane says, "I think it would be very 
difficult to find a Boykin Spaniel that would 
not be interested in hunting, no matter 
where it came from." 

In thinking about it a bit more, if Mr. 
and Mrs. Of Jones have decided we need a 
determined little hunter, 1 think we ought 
to bring back two. I have already picked out 
their names — in keeping with their South 
C^arolina heritage: Shrimp and Grits\ 

Keep a leg up, 


"That is one lazy dog." 

Boy Scout 

Sponsored by VDGIF & VHEA 
New Kent Forestry Center 

November 25-27 and 

December 31 -January 1 


Henry McBurney 


A Guide to the 
Frogs and Toads of 
Virginia is a 44- 
page field guide 
that covers all 27 
species of frogs 
and toads that in- 
habit Virginia. 
Species accounts, descriptions, biology, 
behavior, habitats and conservation is- 
sues are all described and illustrated 
through more than 80 photographs 
and drawings. Included is a complimen- 
tary CD of The Calls of Virginia Frogs and 
Toads. Published by DGIF. 
Item #VW256 $10.00 

To Order visit 
or call (804) 367-2569 


Photo Tips 

by Lynda Richardson 

Protecting Your Rights: Copyright and the Photographer 

Did you know that the second you 
press the shutter of a camera you are 
creating a copyrighted work? But what does 
that mean exactly? In her insighthil book, 
Photographer's Legal Guide, Carolyn E. 
Wright, Esq. states, "Copyright is a legal 
form of protection granted by the United 
States Constitution for original works that 
include literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, 
and photographic works. Copyright gives 
the author or creator the exclusive 'right' to 
'copy the original work. . . . Copyrights do 
not extend to ideas, methods, procedures, 
concepts, principles, short names, titles, slo- 
gans, and works that have not been trans- 
formed into a tangible form, such as a print 
or electronic file." 

Photographs are protected whether shot 
digitally or as film. Photographs are protect- 
ed whether published or not. As the owner, a 
photographer has the legal right to do any- 
thing with their images. This includes repro- 
ducing the photographs, displaying them 
publicly, making other works from the im- 
ages, and including the images in other 
works. It also includes the ability to sell, rent, 
lend, or transfer usage rights to someone else. 

An agreement can be made orally, but it 
is always best to get everythingm writing. You 
never know when the person you made the 
agreement with might become incapacitated 
or simply can't remember what was said. A 
contract stating the terms of use, time limita- 
tions, and reimbursement does not have to 
be written by a lawyer to be legal and binding 
but it does need signatures horn both parties. 

Before sending your images out into the 
world you should add a copyright notice and 
contact information into the metadata of all 
digital image files. This information will trav- 
el with your photographs wherever they go. 
Include the copyright symbol ©, the first 
date of publication, and your name. Doing 
so gives potential users contact information if 

they want to purchase rights to use your 
image. If you have a website that includes 
your name, someone should be able to find 
you through an online search. 

There is also something called the doc- 
trine of "fair use." What this means is that 
under certain circumstances an image can be 
used without permission. If someone copies 
your image and uses it "for purposes such as 
criticism, comment, news, reporting, teach- 
ing, scholarship, or research," this is consid- 
ered fair use as long as the use is not of a 
commercial nature or affects a potential mar- 
ket for the photographer. 

If someone infringes on the use of your 
photograph, you can do something about it. 
You can approach the person/entity directly 
and make a "cease and desist" complaint and, 
depending upon the circumstances, ask for 

copyright violation reimbursement. If you 
fail to resolve the issue yourself hire a lawyer 
specializing in copyright law to investigate 
the matter. 

You will have the most power in protect- 
ing your copyright if you register your images 
with the U.S. Copyright Office. If an image 
is registered before an infringement, you are 
entitled to recover actual and/or statutory 
damages. If you register after an infringe- 
ment, you may receive some reimbursement 
depending upon various factors. 

Understanding that you own all of your 
photographs and have a legal means to pro- 
tect them is another tool in safeguarding your 
rights as a photographer. For more detailed 
information on copyright and copyright law, 
go to www.photoattorney.coni and 

Many photographers use watermarks, as seen here, to help protect their online images from illegal 
usage. Companies like Digimarc can help you embed and track images anywhere on the web. 

NOVEMBER 2011 ♦ 33 





by Ken and Mono Perrotte 

Venison Barbeque Baked Beans 

Flavor, flexibility, and fiber are among the key attributes 
of this simple one-pot meal. Loaded with meat and 
fast to make since it employs canned beans, it is easily trans- 
ported to parties or slapped together for a deer camp table. 

Serve it in a bread bowl for added panache. If yon feel a 
need for some leafy greens on the side, add a salad, but think 
twice before doing something like a three-bean salad. 

We originally enjoyed a variation of this dish at a neigh- 
bor's party, and our tamily and friends like the venison and 
sausage tweaks we have added. You can adjust the taste by 
including your own favorite smoked and ground meats to 
this recipe, or stretch it by adding up to another pound ot 
meats. It wouldn't affect the flavor significantly. 

Did we mention it's heavy on the beans? 


i pound grouml venison 

1 pound diick sliced bacon 

Vi poiuid venison sausage (breakfast or smoked works well) 

1 Vi cups chopped onion 

Va cup sugar 

Vi cup packed brown sugar 

3 tablespoons molasses 

Vi cup ketchup 

Vi cup barbeque sauce 

1 tablespoon Dijon or spicy mustard 

1 teaspoon chili powder 

1 teaspoon black pepper 
Salt to taste 

2 cans, 16 ounce pork and beans 

1 can, 1 5 ounce black beans, drained 

1 can, 1 5 ounce butter or lima beans, drained 

1 can, 1 5 ounce kidney beans, drained 

Pre-heat oven to 350°. Cook the bacon in a skillet. Crumble 
or break into small chunks and set aside. Drain ofl the 
grease. In the same skillet, brown the ground meat and 
sausage. Set the meat aside and drain ofl the hit. Chop the 
onions and cook in the same skillet until soft. Combine half 
of the bacon, the meat and onions, and all the seasonings, 
spices, and liquids in a large bowl. Mix in the beans. Stir 
well; taste and adjust the seasonings if desired. Pour into a 
greased baking or casserole dish, top with the rest of the 
crumbled bacon, and cook lor about an hour until the edges 
start to bubble slighdy. If the top starts to brown or dry out, 
stir the mixture and turn the heat down to 325°. 

ITiis can easily be mixed aliead of time and baked later 
as needed. Serves 10 as a main dish and 1 5 or more as a side 

You c;in simply ladle this into a bowl, but try it in a 
bread bowl. Buy or make a few small, round loaves ot crusty 
bread. Hollow them out and ladle in the hot beans and veni- 
son. If you can only find a large, round loaf hollow it out 
and then fill it belore serving the table. I hen, cut it into 
quarters, making an X across the center. You won't get the 
bowl effect for the entire meal but it makes for an interesting 
presentation. \hc bread also sops up liquids and makes for a 
nice accompaniment. 



f^^'^l *^\ 

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